Diversity and potential of exophytic fungi as biological agent to control cocoablack pod disease caused by [phytophthora palmivora (butler) butler] in vitro

I Made Sudarma and Ni Wayan Suniti

The aims of the research to know exophytic fungus which has ability as a biological agent to control the cocoa black pod disease caused by Phytophthora palmivora. The results showed that exophytic fungus on the leaves was faund Aspergillus flavus (3 isolates), A. niger (6), Aspergillus spp. (3) and Mortierella spp. (9). Exophytic fungus on rind were Penicillium spp. (3), Neurospora spp. (12) and Trichotecium spp. (3), while the exophytic fungus on stem were Trichoderma spp. (27), Nigrospora spp. (3), A. niger (3), Mortierella spp. (9) and Neurospora spp. (15). Inhibition test the exophytic fungus against P. palmivora showed that Aspergillus spp. (96.67±2.36%), A.flavus (96.67±5.93%), A. niger (91.67±8.50% to leaf exophytic fungi, and 98.33±2.5% to stem exophytic fungi), Neurospora spp. (89,33±5,01% to rind exophytic fungi and 93.33±2.32% to stem exophytic fungi), and Trichoderma spp. (88.33±10.12%). The diversity index showed that leaves exophytic fungal at 1.7675, to rind exophytic fungusat 2,02281, and to stem exophytic fungusat 1.31894. Only to leaf and stem exophytic showed dominance index were 0.6939 and 0.67590 respectively. While the dominance index to rind exophytic funguswas 0,5000, means diversity evenly. Prevalence of leaves exophitic funguswas Mortierella spp at 42.86%, followed by Trichoderma spp. (47.37%) on stem exophytic, and the achieved the highest by Neurospora spp. (66.67%) on rind exophytic.

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